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June 23rd, 2014, 09:23 AM
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Can you give me question paper pattern for ICAR NET Food Technology examination ??

Here I am giving you question paper pattern for ICAR NET Food Technology examination in PDF file attached with it so you can get it easily.

Food technology question will based on following topics :

Unit 1: Introductory Food Technology
Unit 3: Technology of Foods of Animal Origin
Unit 4: Food Quality Management
Unit 5: Food Engineering/Packaging and Labelling Page 137
and functions of containers. Principles of package design.
Unit 6: Food Microbiology & Biotechnology
Unit 7: Flavour Chemistry Technology
Unit 8: Consumer Sciences / Food Product Development / Health Foods

Unit 1: Introductory Food Technology
Introduction to food technology. Food processing industries/institutions/food
scientists of importance in India. Food attributes viz. colour, texture, flavour,
nutritive value and consumer preferences. Causes of food spoilage, sources of
microbial contamination of foods, food borne illnesses, water activity and its relation
to spoilage of foods. Spoilage of processed products and their detection. Principles
and methods of food preservation. Food fortification, Composition and related quality
factors for processing. Methods of food preservation such as heat processing,
pasteurization, canning, dehydration, freezing, freeze drying, fermentation,
microwave, irradiation and chemical additives. Refrigerated and modified atmosphere
storage. Aseptic preservation, hurdle technology, hydrostatic pressure technology and
microwave processing. Use of non-thermal technologies (microfiltration,
bacteriofugation, ultra high voltage electric fields, pulse electric fields, high pressure
processing, irradiation, thermosonication), alternate-thermal technologies (ohmic
heating, dielectric heating, infrared and induction heating) and biological technologies
(antibacterial enzymes, bacteriocins, proteins and peptides) in food processing.

Unit 1: Cell Structure and Function
Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell architecture, Cell wall, plasma membrane, Structure
and function of cell organelles: vacuoles, mitochondria, plastids, golgi apparatus, ER,
peroxisomes, glyoxisomes. Cell division, regulation of cell cycle, Protein secretion and
targeting, Cell division, growth and differentiation.
Unit 2: Biomolecules and Metabolism
Structure and function of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids,
Synthesis of carbohydrate, glycolysis, HMP, Citric acid cycle and metabolic
regulation, Oxidative phosphorylation and substrate level phosphorylation, Vitamins,
plant and animal hormones. Functional molecules, antioxidants, nutrient precursor,
HSPs, anti-viral compounds.
Unit 3: Enzymology
Enzymes, structure conformation, classification, assay, isolation, purification and
characterization, catariysis specificity, mechanism of action, active site, regulation of
enzyme activity, multienzyme complexes, immobilized enzymes and protein
engineering, immobilized enzymes and their application.
Unit 4: Molecular Genetics
Concept of gene, Prokaryotes as genetic system, Prokaryotic and eukaryotic
chromosomes, methods of gene isolation and identification, Split genes, overlapping
genes and pseudo genes, Organization of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes and
genomes including operan, exon, intron, enhancer promoter sequences and other
regulatory elements. Mutation – spontaneous, induced and site-directed,
recombination in bacteria, fungi and viruses, transformation, transduction,
conjugation, transposable elements and transposition.
Unit 5: Gene Expression
Expression of genetic information, operon concept, Transcription – mechanism of
transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes, transcription unit, regulatory sequences
and enhancers, activators, repressors, co-activators, Co-repressors in prokaryotes
and eukaryotes, inducible genes and promoters, Transcription factors post
transcriptional modification and protein transport, DNA-protein interaction, Genetic
code. Mechanism of translation and its control, post translational modifications.
Unit 6: Molecular Biology Techniques
Isolation and purification of nucleic acids. Nucleic acids hybridization: Southern,
northern and western blotting hybridization. Immune response monoclonal and
polyclonal antibodies and ELISA, DNA sequencing. Construction and screening of
genomic and C-DNA libraries. Gel electrophoretic techniques. Polymerase chain
reactor spectroscopy, rtPCR ultracentrifugation, chromatography, FISH, RIA etc.
Unit 7: Gene Cloning
Restriction enzymes and their uses. Salient features and uses of most commonly
used vectors i.e. plasmids, bacteriophages, phagmids, cosmids, BACs, PACs and
YACs, binary vectors, expression vectors. Gene cloning and sub-cloning strategies,
chromosome walking, genetic transformation, Basis of animal cloning. Biology. Risk
assessment and IPR.
Unit 8: Molecular Biology

Ribosome structure and function. Protein biosynthesis in prokaryotes and ekaryotes.
Post-translational modification. Gene regulation, RNA processing and Post
transcriptional modifications. Bioprospecting, biofortification, gene pryrimiding and
gene fusion, nbozyme technology.
Unit 9: Plant Molecular Biology
Photoregulation and phytochrome regulation of nuclear and chloroplastic gene
expression. Molecular mechanism of nitrogen fixation. Molecular biology of various
stresses, viz. abiotic stresses like drought, salt, heavy metals and temperature; and
biotic stresses like bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Signal transduction and its
molecular basis, molecular mechanism of plant hormone action mitochondrial control
of fertility, structure, organization and regulation of nuclear gene concerning storage
proteins and starch synthesis.
Unit 10: Tissue Culture
Basic techniques in cell culture and somatic cell genetics. Regulation of cell cycle and
cell division.. Clonal propagation. Concept of cellular totipotency. Anther culture,
somaclonal and gametoclonal variations. Hybrid embryo culture and embryo rescue,
somatic hybridization and cybridization. Application of tissue culture in crop
improvement. Secondary metabolite production.
In vitro, mutagenesis,
cryopreservation and plant tissue culture repository.
Unit 11: Plant Genetic Engineering
Isolation of genes of economic importance. Gene constructs for tissue-specific
expression. Different methods of gene transfer to plants, viz. direct and vector-
mediated. Molecular analysis of transformants. Potential applications of plant genetic
engineering for crop improvement, i.e. insect-pest resistance (insect, viral, fungal and
bacterial disease resistance), abiotic stress resistance, herbicide resistance, storage
protein quality, increasing shelf-life, oil quality, Current status of transgenics,
biosafty norms and controlled field trials and release of transgenics (GMOs).
Unit 12: Molecular Markers and Genomics
DNA molecular markers: Principles, type and applications; restriction fragment length
polymorphism (RFLP), amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), randomly
amplified polymorphic DNA sequences (RAPD), Simple sequence repeats (SSR), Single
nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), Structural and functional genomics, gene mapping,
genome mapping, gene tagging and comparative genomics and application of

Unit 1: Systematics
History and development of Entomology, Evolution of insects, position of insects in
the animal world, characteristics of phylum Arthropoda, structural features of
important arthropod groups such as Trilobita, Chelicerata and Mandibulata,
structural features of important classes of phylum Arthropoda viz. Arachnida,
Crustacea, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Hexapoda. Classification of insects up to order
level, habits, habitats and distinguishing features of different Order and important
Unit 2: Morphology
Body wall, its structure, outgrowths, endoskeleton, Body regions, segmentation,
sclerites and sutures. Head and head appendages, types of mouth parts, antennae,
their structure and types. Thorax structure, thoracic appendages and their
modification. Wings, their modification and venation, Abdomen; structure, abdominal
appendages both in Pterygota and Apterygota. External genitalia, general structure
and modification in important insect orders.
Unit 3: Embryology, Internal Anatomy and Physiology
Embryonic and post embryonic development, types of metamorphosis, physiology of
ecdysis. General features and types of larvae and pupae. Structure, function and
physiology of Digestive, Circulatory, Respiratory, Reproductive, Nervous and
Excretory systems, Sense Organs; structure and types. Insect food and nutrition;
minerals, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, lipids, vitamins and their role in
growth and development, artificial diets.
Unit 4: Ecology
Concept of ecology, Environment and its components-biotic and abiotic factors and
their effects on growth, development, population dynamics, distribution and
dispersal. Principle of biogeography and insects biodiversity. Biotic potential and
environmental resistance. Ecosystems, agroecosystems analysis, their characteristics
and functioning. Intra and inter specific relationship; competition, predator-prey and
host-parasite interactions, ecological niche. Life table studies, population models.
Food chain and food web. Arthropod population monitoring, pest forecasting.
Diapause and causes of pest out breaks.
Unit 5: Biological Control
Importance and scope of biological control, history of biological control: Biocontrol
agents-parasites, predators and insect pathogens. Important entomophagous insect
Orders and Families. Ecological, biological, taxonomic, legal and economic aspects of
biological control, phenomena of multiple parasitism, hyperparasitism,
superparasitism and their applied importance. Principles and procedures of using
exotic biocontrol agents. Utilization of natural biocontrol agents: conservation, habitat
management and augmentation. Mass multiplication techniques and economics.
Effective evaluation techniques, Biocontrol organizations in world and India.
Successful cases of biological control of pests.
Entomophilic pathogens: bacterial, fungi, viruses, rickettsiae, Protozoan and
nematodes, Modes of transmission, methods of uses, symptoms of infection.

Microbial insecticides and their formulation. Merits and demerits of microbial control.
Role of biocontrol agents and microbial insecticides in Integrated Pest Management.
Unit 6: Chemical Control and Toxicology
History, scope and principles of chemical control. Insecticides and their classification.
Formulations of insecticides. Susceptibility of insects to the entry of insecticides.
Physical, chemical and toxicological properties of different groups of insecticides:
chlorinated hydrocarbons, organophosphates, carbamates, synthetic pyrethroids,
chlordimeform, chitin synthesis inhibitors, avermectins, nitroguandines,
phenylpyrrozzoles, botanicals (natural pyrethroids, rotenone, neem products,
nicotine, pongamia spp. etc). Combination insecticides. Problems of pesticide hazards
and environmental pollution. Safe use of pesticides, precautions and first aid
treatments. Insecticides Act 1968, registration and quality control of insecticides.
Evaluation of toxicity, methods of toxicity testing, determination of LD 50, LT 50, RL 50
etc. Pesticides residues in the environment and their dynamics of movements,
methods of residue. Pharmacology of insect poisons. Mode of action of different
groups of insecticides; neuroactive (axonal and synaptic) poisons, respiratory poisons,
chitin synthesis inhibitors. Metabolism of insecticides; activative and degradative
metabolism, detoxification enzymes and their role in metabolism. Selectivity of
insecticidal actions; insecticide resistance; mechanism, genetics and management of
insecticide resistance.
Unit 7: Host Plant Resistance
Chemical ecology: mechano and chemo receptors. Host plant selection by
phytophagous insects. Secondary plant substances and their defenses against
phytophagous insect. Basis of resistance (Antixenosis, Antobiosis, Tolerance).
Biotypes development and its remedial measures. Tritrophic interactions, induced
resistance. Breeding for insect resistant plant varieties. Resistance development and
evaluation techniques. Genetics of Resistance: vertical resistance, horizontal
resistance, oligogenic resistance, polygenic resistance. Biotechnological approaches
and development of transgenic insect resistant plants, its advantages and limitations.
Case histories. Insect resistance to transgenic plants and its management.
Unit 8: Innovative Approaches in Pest Control
Behavioral control: pheromones-types and uses, advantages and limitations.
Hormonal control: types and function of insect hormones, insect hormone mimics,
advantages and limitations. chemosterilants, antifeedants, attractants, repellents;
their types, method of applications, advantages and limitations. Genetic control:
concepts and methods, case histories, advantages and limitations. Potentialities of
Unit 9: Integrated Pest Management
History, concept and principles of IPM. Components of IPM: Host plant resistance,
agronomic manipulations, mechanical and physical methods, chemical methods,
biocontrol agents utilization, genetic and behavioral control strategy etc. IPM
strategies for field and horticultural crops. IPM case histories. Concept of damage
levels- Economic threshold levels (ETL), Economic injury levels (EIL) and their
determination. System approach, Agro ecosystem and cropping system vs. IPM.
Constraints and Strategies of IPM implementation.
Unit 10: Pesticide Application Equipments

Types of appliances: sprayers, dusters, fog generators, smoke generators, soil
injecting guns, seed treating drums, flame throwers, etc. Power operated sprayers
and dusters. Types of nozzles and their uses. Maintenance of appliances. Aerial
application of pesticides, principles of aerial application, factors affecting the
effectiveness of aerial application. Equipments for aerial applications. Advantages and
disadvantages of aerial application.
Unit 11: Pests of Field Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management
of arthropod pests of cereals, Oilseed, pulses and fibre crops, sugarcane and tobacco.
Polyphagous pests: locusts, termites, hairy catepillars, cut worms and white grubs.
Unit 12: Pests of Horticultural Crops and their Management
Distribution, host range, biology and bionomics, nature of damage and management
of arthropod pests of vegetables, fruits and plantation crops, spices, condiments and
Unit 13: Pests of Stored Products and their Management
Fundamentals of storage of grains and grain products. Storage losses, sources of
infestation/infection, factors influencing losses, insect and non-insect pests, their
nature of damage and control. Microflora in storage environment and their control.
Storage structures, bulk storage and bag storage, their relative efficacy and demerits.
Grain drying methods and aeration. Non-insect pests (rodents, birds, mites) of stored
products and their control. Integrated management of storage pests.
Unit 14: Arthrpod Vectors of Plant Diseases
Common arthropod vectors viz., aphids, leaf hoppers, plant hoppers, whiteflies,
thrips, psylids, beetles, weevils, flies, bees and mites and their relationship with the
plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria, viruses, mycoplasma. Mechanism of pathogen
transmission : Active mechanical transmission, biological transmission. Toxicogenic
insects, mites and phytotoxemia. Some important arthropod vector transmitted
diseases and their epidemiology in India. Management of vector and its effect on
control of diseases.
Unit 15: Honey Bees and Bee-keeping
Honey bees and their economic importance. Bee species, their behaviour, habit and
habitats. Bee Keeping: bee pasturage, hives and equipments, seasonal management.
Bee enemies including diseases and their control.
Unit 16: Silkworms and Sericulture
Silkworm species, their systematic position and salient features. Rearing techniques
of mulberry-muga-eri and tassar silkworms. Nutritional requirements of silkworms.
Sericulture: rearing house and appliances, silkworm breeds, principles of voltism and
nioultism, seed production and its economics. Enemies and diseases of silkworms
and their management. Sericulture organization in India.
Unit 17: Lac Insect
Lac insect, its biology, habit and habitats. Host Trees: pruning, inoculation, lac
cropping techniques, and harvesting. Enemies of lac insect and their control.
Unit 18: Other Useful Insects

Pollinators, biocontrol agents of weeds, soil fertility improving agents, scavengers. Use
of insects and insect products in medicines. Usefulness of insects in scientific
investigations, insects as food.
Unit 19: Statistics and Computer Application
Frequency distribution, mean, mode and median. Standard, normal, bionomial and
Poisson’s distribution, Sampling methods and standard errors. Correlation and
regression: Partial and multiple, tests of significance; t, F, chi- square, Duncan’s
multiple range tests. Design of experiments: Principles of Randomized block design,
Completely r
andomized block design, Latin square design, Split-plot designs. Probit analysis. Use
of soft ware packages like SPSS, SAS, etc. for the above tests and designs of
experiments for analysis.

Unit 1: History of Microbial World
History, development and scope of microbiology, evolution of microbial life. Theory of
spontaneous generiation. Prokaryotes, archaebacteria and eukaryotes. Techniques
used in identification and classification of bacteria. Important groups of prokaryotes –
photosynthetic bacteria, blue green algae, chemoautotrophic bacteria, spore forming
bacteria, mycoplasma, viruses, bacteriophages and actinomycetes. Heterotrophic
bacteria nitrobacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and cyanabacteria, lactic acid bacteria,
halophiles, thermophiles acidophiles and methanogens. Structure and classification
of viruses, growth of viruses, lytic and lysogenic cycles, plant viruses, viroids.
Unit 2: Microbial Ecology and Physiology
Principles of microbial ecology, Microbiology of ecosystems - soil, rhizosphere,
phyllosphere, water - fresh and marine, and air. Microbial interactions - symbiosis,
synergism, commenalism, parasitism, amensalism, antagonism and predation,
adoption of micro-organisms to various ecosystems. Microbial growth curve.
Mathematical expression of growth -continuous and batch cultures. Diauxic and
synchronous growth. Microbial nutrition. Bacterial metabolism - aerobic and
anaerobic respiration, electron transport chain, microbial photosynthesis, oxidative
and substrate level photo-phosphorylation. Biosynthesis of cell wall, protein
breakdown by microbes.
Unit 3: Soil Microbiology
Soil microorganisms: major groups, decomposition of organic matter, soil health. Root
exudates and rhizosphere effects. Manipulation of rhizosphere microflora in plant
productivity. Microbial biomass. Nitrogen cycle: ammonification, nitrification and
denitrification. Biological nitrogen fixation–symbiotic and asymbiotic. Biochemistry
and genetics of nitrogen fixation. Microbial transformations of phosphorus, sulphur
and minor nutrients. Role of bio-fertilizers in agriculture and forestry. Bioremediation
of problem soils, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and their mode of action.
Formation and composition of soil organic matter: fulvic acid and humic acid.
Unit 4: Environmental Microbiology and Basic Microbiological Techniques
Isolation and preservation of different types of microorganisms. Methods of
sterilization and disinfection. Microscopy: Optical, phase contrast, fluorescent, dark
field and electron. Microbial assay of vitamins, enzymes and antibiotics, Pollution of
soil, water and air, Role of microorganisms in pollution, sources of pollution and their
impact on environment, microbiology of sewage and industrial effluents and their safe
disposal, management of solid and liquid organic wastes, composting, biogas, water
purification, sewage treatment, water-borne diseases and effluent management.
Unit 5: Microbial Biotechnology
Industrial production of metabolites - organic acids, alcohols, antibiotics. Fermentor
designs and types. Control of fermentation process - batch, feed batch and
continuous. Downstream processing in fermentation industry. Production of single
cell proteins and probiotics, hormones, biofertilizers, biopesticides. Phyto-
remediation. Microbiology of raw and processed foods. Fermented food – vinegar, wine
saucrkraut, pickles, cheese, yogurt. Food preservation, contamination and spoilage,
food-borne illness and intoxication. Food as substrate for micro-organism, microflora

of meat, fish, egg, fruits, vegetables, juices, flour, canned foods; bio- degrading
microbes, single cell protein for use as food and feed, bioactive food / probiotic
Attached Files
File Type: doc ICAR NET Food Tech syllabus.doc (940.0 KB, 358 views)

Last edited by Anuj Bhola; October 11th, 2019 at 02:44 PM.
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October 27th, 2015, 03:03 PM
Junior Member
Join Date: Oct 2015
Re: ICAR NET Food Tech Sample Question Papers

[QUOTE=Nitin Sharma;74572]Here I am giving you question paper pattern for ICAR NET Food Technology examination in PDF file attached with it so you can get it easily.

please can i get NET food technology question papers
December 1st, 2019, 02:45 PM
Guest User
Re: ICAR NET Food Tech Sample Question Papers

please can i get NET food technology question papers
July 19th, 2021, 11:10 PM
Guest User
Re: ICAR NET Food Tech Sample Question Papers

please can i get NET food technology question papers

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